Ambiguous expressions pervade language. Moreover, it appears that speakers don’t always avoid speaking ambiguously. So how do we manage to communicate at all? And why are we often oblivious to the pervasiveness of this ambiguity? Reframing the problem One answer to these questions is to reframe the problem: perhaps, some might say, language is not … Continue reading Is language really ambiguous? (Ambiguity in language, pt. 3)
The prevalence of ambiguity in language poses a problem for communication. Ambiguous expressions require listeners to infer which interpretation was intended, raising the probability of miscommunication. One fairly obvious solution to this problem would be for speakers to speak less ambiguously––but is this really what they do? First, we need to define exactly what we … Continue reading U-turns in speech production (Ambiguity in language, pt. 2)
This post is a departure from my usual post format. Instead of walking through a theoretical topic or recent academic paper, this is intended to be a soft introduction to using Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) to categorize documents. It's essentially an extension to the existing tutorial in sklearn, found here. I'll be using nlp_utilities for the walkthrough. … Continue reading [Tutorial] Document classification with Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA)
Popular culture often depicts intelligent machines as coldly rational––capable of making “objective” decisions that humans can’t. More recently, however, there’s been increased attention to the presence of bias in supposedly objective systems, from image recognition to models of human language. Often, these biases instantiate actual human prejudices, as described in Cathy O’Neill’s Weapons of Math … Continue reading What we talk about when we talk about bias in A.I.
Ambiguity pervades language. This ambiguity can be used strategically by speakers, but it’s also what makes language so challenging for machines to understand – and in some cases, it even leads to miscommunications between people, particularly over written communication. During in-person interactions, ambiguity is more easily avoided. If a speaker says of a recently released … Continue reading That’s not what I meant!
A recurring question in both scientific and public discourse is whether any given property of an organism is innate or learned. This debate, usually framed in terms of Nature vs. Nurture, often centers around properties of human behavior and cognition: intelligence, language, morality, mathematics, and so on. But while this dichotomous framing perhaps seems obvious … Continue reading What is ‘innateness’, anyway?
Language is full of ambiguity. This fuzziness is often cited as a sign of imperfection, leading some to try to develop more precise languages of their own. But ambiguity actually serves a purpose, and is frequently exploited in human interactions. Part of recognizing the utility of ambiguity requires understanding that language is more than just … Continue reading “You Got Heat?”: Indirect speech acts in The Wire